Tuvalu is the fourth smallest country in the world with a population of around 11,000 and a land area of 25.9 km2; its exclusive economic zone covers 900,000 km2. Like other Pacific Island countries, Tuvalu faces a unique set of development challenges due to its small size; narrow production and export bases; insularity; remoteness; fragmented, limited resources and capacity constraints; and proneness to natural disasters and vulnerability to climate change. These characteristics heighten its susceptibility to economic and climate-related shocks. Climate change has been identified by the Government of Tuvalu and the Pacific Islands Forum Leaders as the greatest threat facing this and other small island countries. Tuvalu faces key climate vulnerabilities including scarcity of freshwater, coastal erosion, soil salination, reduced fish habitats due to ocean acidification, coral bleaching, rising sea water levels and increasing extreme climate events (typhoons, wave surges)
Given the specific context of climate vulnerabilities and risks in Tuvalu and the Pacific region in general, LoCAL-Tuvalu will address in addition to climate change adaptation and resilience measures, climate-related disaster risk reduction and disaster preparedness measures (e.g. cyclones, prolonged drought).
Objectives, results and activities
The aim of LoCAL-Tuvalu is to improve the capacities of local governments to address climate change by increasing access to climate change adaptation financing through PBCRGs. The expected outputs are as follows:
Adaptation measures and investments
The viability of subsistence-based livelihoods in Tuvalu is likely to be undermined significantly due to climate change. Consequently, the first and second cycles of PBCRG investments focused on two critical axes: water and sanitation, and disaster prevention and preparedness.
The LoCAL programme was initially piloted in three highly vulnerable falekaupules/kaupules representing the various geographical areas of Tuvalu (north, central and south). Phase II is expected to commence in 2019–2020 with planning and preparation of interventions for up-scaling, with expected coverage of all local governments, or at least an additional two or three authorities. In the latter case, full scale-up for the national system is envisaged for 2021 onwards (Phase III).
Number of administrative zones: 14
Phase I: 2016–2017 (USD 300,000)
Phase II: 2016 onwards (depending on availability of resources)
Lead government partners (Memorandum of Understanding): Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (MoFALD)
LoCAL donors and in-country development partners: EU Global Climate Change Alliance; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Government of Liechtenstein; UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative