Mozambique’s geographical location in the Intertropical Convergence Zone makes it particularly susceptible to extreme climate phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña, which bring droughts, floods and cyclones on a regular basis. Available data and climatic models indicate a steady increase in the severity and frequency of these events over the last 30 years with a similar forecast for the future. Data from the Institute for Disaster Relief show that, between 1985 and 2008, over 16 million people were affected by droughts and over 100,000 people died as a result. The adverse effects of climate change in Mozambique undermine government efforts to reduce poverty, improve food and nutritional security, expand infrastructure and services and reach the targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals.
The decentralization process in Mozambique has been a combination of decentralization and de-concentration with a gradual transfer of responsibilities, powers, staff and funding to the municipal tier as well as to the more de-concentrated levels of provincial and district governments. The Government of Mozambique initiated the process of de-concentration as part of its public sector reform in 2003, culminating in the approval of a new institutional framework for sub-national state organs under Law 8/2003, which establishes new principles and norms of organization, competencies and functioning for provinces, districts, administrative posts and localities.
In addition to general executive and administrative functions, the law assigns detailed competencies to the district level in a large number of functional areas — notably, emergency services; preservation of the environment; commerce and industry; water supply; education; health; natural resource management; energy resources; transportation and public transit, participatory local development; public services; public works; and recreation, culture and tourism. Many of these sectors figure prominently in climate change adaptation.
Objectives, results and activities
The overall outcome of LoCAL-Mozambique is to improve the resilience of districts to climate change as a result of increased access to climate change adaptation financing through performance-based climate resilience grants (PBCRGs).
Five specific outputs contribute to the achievement of this overall outcome:
Population: 25.8 millions
Number of districts: 151
Phase I: 2015–2018 (USD 3.1 million, with USD 2.3 million from Belgian Development Cooperation and USD 800,000 from global programme and other sources to be mobilized)
Phase II: 2019 onwards (depending on availability of resources)
Lead government partners (Memorandum of Understanding): Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF)
Other government partners: Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MLERD); Ministry of Administration and Public Service (MAPS)
LoCAL donors and in-country development partners: Belgian Development Cooperation; EU Global Climate Change Alliance; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Government of Liechtenstein; UNDP; UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative; Danish International Development Agency (Danida)
Government of Mozambique:
Ms. Ester Santos, Senior Advisor, Ministry of Economy and Finance, eSantos@mpd.gov.mz
Ms. Carlota Malate, Project Associate (Mozambique), firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr. Ramon Cervera, Programme Specialist (Mozambique), email@example.com
Mr. Dmitry Pozhidaev, Regional Technical Advisor (Eastern and Southern Africa), firstname.lastname@example.org
Ms. Sophie De Coninck, LoCAL Programme Manager (Africa), email@example.com